September292014
humanoidhistory:

Portrait of an old samurai, Japan, circa 1890, courtesy of Harvard Library.

humanoidhistory:

Portrait of an old samurai, Japan, circa 1890, courtesy of Harvard Library.

(via ryanshistoryblog)

September22014
indypendent-thinking:

1932, Chinese-American pilots Hazel Ying Lee and Virginia Wong (via You May Not Know About The First Chinese Americans, But You Should)

indypendent-thinking:

1932, Chinese-American pilots Hazel Ying Lee and Virginia Wong (via You May Not Know About The First Chinese Americans, But You Should)

(via gingerhaze)

11AM

todayinhistory:

September 2nd 1945: Vietnamese Proclamation of Independence

On this day in 1945 the Vietnamese Proclamation of Independence was issued. The Proclamation, written by communist revolutionary Ho Chi Minh, was first announced in public at the Ba Đình flower garden in Hanoi. Vietnam had been a colony of France since the 19th century, but revolutionary forces were able to take hold following the occupation of the country by the Japanese during World War Two. The Proclamation itself began with a direct quote from the US Declaration of Independence and liberally quoted from French revolutionary texts to highlight the hypocrisy of brutal and repressive French imperialism. The Communists’ Proclamation made no reference to Marx or Lenin but despite its praise of the American Founding Fathers and attempts to appeal to them, the Cold War driven United States was determined to destroy this new communist state. The US therefore supported France in their attempt to reassert control in the ensuing Indochina War. However the French were no match for Ho Chi Minh’s well-organised guerilla forces, and suffered humiliating defeat at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The war ended with the Geneva Accords which divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel into a communist North and Western-friendly South. After years of struggle and unrest between the two, and the steadily increasing presence of US advisers, full scale war broke out and by 1965 the US had decidedly entered the conflict on the side of the South. The Americans underestimated the determination of the North Vietnamese and eventually withdrew from the war that had killed millions of people. Shortly after in April 1975, thirty years after the initial proclamation of independence, Saigon fell to the communists and Vietnam was reunited as an independent communist state.

"Vietnam has the right to be a free and independent country—and in fact it is so already. And thus the entire Vietnamese people are determined to mobilize all their physical and mental strength, to sacrifice their lives and property in order to safeguard their independence and liberty"
- excerpt from Vietnamese Proclamation of Independence
August92014
pbsthisdayinhistory:

August 9-12, 1941: Roosevelt and Churchill map out war goals at Atlantic Conference 
From August 9—12, 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill conferred in their first wartime conference. Together they drafted the Atlantic Charter, a joint declaration of the two nations’ war aims and beliefs. 
The Atlantic Charter laid the foundation for the formation of the United Nations, under which, the following year, 26 nations pledged to fight a united front against Axis powers.
Learn more about all the Roosevelts with preview videos from Ken Burns’s The Roosevelts.
Photo: President Roosevelt welcomes Prime Minister Churchill aboard the USS Augusta for the Atlantic Conference, August 1941. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library.

pbsthisdayinhistory:

August 9-12, 1941: Roosevelt and Churchill map out war goals at Atlantic Conference

From August 9—12, 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill conferred in their first wartime conference. Together they drafted the Atlantic Charter, a joint declaration of the two nations’ war aims and beliefs.

The Atlantic Charter laid the foundation for the formation of the United Nations, under which, the following year, 26 nations pledged to fight a united front against Axis powers.

Learn more about all the Roosevelts with preview videos from Ken Burns’s The Roosevelts.

Photo: President Roosevelt welcomes Prime Minister Churchill aboard the USS Augusta for the Atlantic Conference, August 1941. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library.

August52014
ancientart:

Taizokai (Womb World) mandara, Heian period, Japanese. Hanging scroll, colour on silk.
Pictured above is the iconic Womb World mandara, the best preserved and oldest of its kind from Japan. A diagram of the cosmic universe is presented, which consists of 12 zones, each of which represent one of the dimensions of buddha nature (such as, purity, wisdom, and universal knowledge).
The arts flourished during the early Heian period in result to the emphasis Shingon placed on mediation and ritual. Artistic forms such as sculpture and painting gave followers visualizations of Buddhist deities, and allowed them to ponder presented concepts of the religion.
While difficult to view without close-up observation, note the figures holding lightening bolts. This symbolizes the power of the mind to eradicate human passion.
Here I would recommend Gardner’s Art through the Ages: Non-Western Perspectives by Fred S. Kleiner, particularly the chapter ‘Japan before 1333,’ which I used for reference while writing up this post.
Photo via the Wiki Commons. This artefact is courtesy of and currently located at Kyoogokokuji (Toji), a Shingon teaching center in Kyoto, Japan.

ancientart:

Taizokai (Womb World) mandara, Heian period, Japanese. Hanging scroll, colour on silk.

Pictured above is the iconic Womb World mandara, the best preserved and oldest of its kind from Japan. A diagram of the cosmic universe is presented, which consists of 12 zones, each of which represent one of the dimensions of buddha nature (such as, purity, wisdom, and universal knowledge).

The arts flourished during the early Heian period in result to the emphasis Shingon placed on mediation and ritual. Artistic forms such as sculpture and painting gave followers visualizations of Buddhist deities, and allowed them to ponder presented concepts of the religion.

While difficult to view without close-up observation, note the figures holding lightening bolts. This symbolizes the power of the mind to eradicate human passion.

Here I would recommend Gardner’s Art through the Ages: Non-Western Perspectives by Fred S. Kleiner, particularly the chapter ‘Japan before 1333,’ which I used for reference while writing up this post.

Photo via the Wiki Commons. This artefact is courtesy of and currently located at Kyoogokokuji (Toji), a Shingon teaching center in Kyoto, Japan.

9AM
pbsthisdayinhistory:

August 5, 1962: Marilyn Monroe Dies at Age 36
On this day in 1962, American actress, model, and singer Marilyn Monroe was found dead in her home in California. Monroe’s roles in the films Niagara, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, How to Marry a Millionaire, and There’s No Business like Show Business made her one of the most famed actresses in the 1950s.  
 Remember the cultural icon’s career with an essay by Gloria Steinem on the American Masters’ Marilyn Monroe film page.
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

pbsthisdayinhistory:

August 5, 1962: Marilyn Monroe Dies at Age 36

On this day in 1962, American actress, model, and singer Marilyn Monroe was found dead in her home in California. Monroe’s roles in the films Niagara, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, How to Marry a Millionaire, and There’s No Business like Show Business made her one of the most famed actresses in the 1950s. 

Remember the cultural icon’s career with an essay by Gloria Steinem on the American Masters’ Marilyn Monroe film page.

Photo: Wikimedia Commons

July272014

(Source: darkryemag, via ryanshistoryblog)

July252014
pbsthisdayinhistory:

July 25, 1978: The First Test Tube Baby is Born
On this day in 1978, Louise Joy Brown, the world’s first baby to be conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), was born to Lesley and Peter Brown in Manchester, England.  The Brown family faced intense media attention regarding the ethics and legality of the experimental and revolutionary procedure.  IVF has become so common that there have been over 5 million babies born this way in the past 36 years.
 Learn about the history of in vitro fertilization with this American Experience timeline.
Photo: Biologist Robert Edwards holds baby Louise Brown, the first test-tube baby, on July 25, 1978. (Photo by Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images)

pbsthisdayinhistory:

July 25, 1978: The First Test Tube Baby is Born

On this day in 1978, Louise Joy Brown, the world’s first baby to be conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), was born to Lesley and Peter Brown in Manchester, England.  The Brown family faced intense media attention regarding the ethics and legality of the experimental and revolutionary procedure.  IVF has become so common that there have been over 5 million babies born this way in the past 36 years.

Learn about the history of in vitro fertilization with this American Experience timeline.

Photo: Biologist Robert Edwards holds baby Louise Brown, the first test-tube baby, on July 25, 1978. (Photo by Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images)

July142014
pbsthisdayinhistory:

July 14, 1918: Theodore Roosevelt’s Youngest Son, Quentin, Killed in WWI
On this day in 1918, 20-year-old Quentin Roosevelt, Teddy’s youngest son, was shot down by German planes while flying a mission in France during WWI.  Quentin was originally buried at the site of the plane crash, but after WWII, his remains were moved to the Normandy American Cemetery above Omaha Beach, next to those of his brother, General Ted Roosevelt, Jr.
Later, President Theodore Roosevelt wrote of his son in a tribute book that opened with the line, “Only those are fit to live who do not fear to die.”
Learn more about the entire Roosevelt family with preview videos from Ken Burns’s The Roosevelts.
Photo: Allies visiting Quentin Roosevelt’s Grave in France during WWI.

pbsthisdayinhistory:

July 14, 1918: Theodore Roosevelt’s Youngest Son, Quentin, Killed in WWI

On this day in 1918, 20-year-old Quentin Roosevelt, Teddy’s youngest son, was shot down by German planes while flying a mission in France during WWI.  Quentin was originally buried at the site of the plane crash, but after WWII, his remains were moved to the Normandy American Cemetery above Omaha Beach, next to those of his brother, General Ted Roosevelt, Jr.

Later, President Theodore Roosevelt wrote of his son in a tribute book that opened with the line, “Only those are fit to live who do not fear to die.”

Learn more about the entire Roosevelt family with preview videos from Ken Burns’s The Roosevelts.

Photo: Allies visiting Quentin Roosevelt’s Grave in France during WWI.

July42014

todayinhistory:

July 4th 1776: American independence

On this day in 1776, the Declaration of Independence was approved and adopted by the Continental Congress. Thus, independence of the United States from the United Kingdom was secured. The Declaration was written mainly by Thomas Jefferson and it explained how Britain’s actions had led to American desire for independence. Congress had voted on July 2nd to declare independence but approved the wording of the official Declaration on July 4th, thus this day is celebrated as Independence Day. The date of its signing by the 56 delegates to Congress has been disputed, but it is generally held to be on August 2nd.

"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

June232014

todayinhistory:

June 23rd 1969: Burger becomes Chief Justice

On this day in 1969, Warren Earl Burger was sworn in as 15th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court by the retiring Chief Earl Warren. Warren’s tenure had seen the Court take a far more active role in American society, especially with its landmark rulings on race (in Brown v. Board of Education in 1954) and establishing ‘Miranda rights’ of arrested persons to be read their 5th Amendment right to remain silent in Miranda v. Arizona (1966). Burger was more conservative than Warren, but his Court still delivered significant decisions such as invalidating the contemporary methods of death penalty in Furman v. Georgia (1972), declaring the right to an abortion in Roe v. Wade (1973) and forcing President Nixon to hand over the Watergate tapes in United States v. Nixon (1974). Burger retired in September 1986 and was succeeded by William Rehnquist. He died in 1995 aged 87.

June152014

todayinhistory:

June 15th 1888: Wilhelm becomes Kaiser

On this day in 1888 Crown Prince Wilhelm became Kaiser Wilhelm II upon the death of his predecessor Frederick III. He dismissed Chancellor Otto von Bismarck and took more control of policy; Wilhelm proved an ineffective war leader during World War One. He was the last Emperor of the German Empire and reigned until 9th November 1918 when he abdicated following growing disaffection with his leadership. After Wilhelm, the German monarchy was abolished and Friedrich Ebert became the first President of Germany. Wilhelm died in 1941 aged 82.

May122014
fyeah-history:

The men of the French Naval Brigade march on Macquarie Street, Sydney, 1915
Source: Australian National Maritime Museum.

fyeah-history:

The men of the French Naval Brigade march on Macquarie Street, Sydney, 1915

Source: Australian National Maritime Museum.

(Source: Flickr / anmm_thecommons)

May112014

todayinhistory:

May 11th 1812: Spencer Perceval assassinated

On this day in 1812 Spencer Perceval became the first and only British Prime Minister to be assassinated when he was shot by John Bellingham in the lobby of the House of Commons. Perceval became Tory Prime Minister in 1809 (replacing the Duke of Portland) and his administration had to deal with economic depression, Luddism and the ‘madness’ of King George III. He had initially been considered a weak Prime Minister, but things had been looking up for his administration until he was shot. Bellingham was a merchant with a grievance against the government for supposedly not freeing him when he was imprisoned in Russia. The assassin was hanged on 18th May.

“I am murdered…I am murdered”
- Perceval’s last words

May102014

todayinhistory:

May 10th 1849: Astor Place Riot

On this day in 1849 a riot broke out at the Astor Opera House in New York City. The incident was initially sparked by a long-running dispute between two leading actors of the day - William Charles Macready and Edwin Forrest - over who was a better Shakespearean performer. However, tensions heightened as the two actors became proxies for the opposing classes in New York - the British Macready represented the upper class and the American Forrest the lower classes. The brewing animosity came to a head on the night of May 10th when Macready’s performance of Macbeth, which had been cancelled due to protests at the first attempt, was rescheduled for. A militia company, expecting there to be violence at the rescheduled play, was stationed nearby. As predicted, violence broke out which prompted the troops to fire into the crowd, with around 25 being killed and hundreds injured. The riot is mainly remembered today for the way it pitted immigrants against nativists, a divide which was arguably a key factor in the lead up to Civil War.

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